Grandeur Fasteners has a wide range of cold heading capabilities using virtually any cold formable material on the market. Common materials (but not limited to) are alloy steel, aluminum, brass, copper, medium & low carbon steel, nickel alloys & monel, silicon bronze, and stainless steel. Our engineering department is here to help meet your needs and provide you with the best materials and product design available.

 

Materials for Cold Forming

Carbon SteelLow Carbon
0.05 to 0.30%
- Easily Cold Formed
- Not Responsive to Heat Treatment
- Typically Case Hardened for Wear Resistance
Medium Carbon
0.30 to 0.60%
- Lower Carbon, Fairly Easily Cold Formed
- Heat Treatable
- Best Strength to Cost Ratio
High Carbon
0.60 to 2.00%
- Rarely Cold Formed
Alloy SteelSpecialty Elements Added to Improve:
- Strength
- Hardenability
- Toughness
- Temp Resistance
- Corrosion Resistance
- More Difficult to Cold Form
- Heat Treatable
- Greater End Use Safety Margin
- Overall Processing is More Difficult
Stainless Steel400 Series
(Straight Chromium)
- Some More Cold Formable Than Others
- Form Similar to Medium/High Alloy Steels
- 300 Series More Challenging
- Rapid Work Hardening Common
- Mainly Fasteners
- Poor Tool Life
300 Series
(18-8 Stainless)
Alloy Copper- Copper
- Brass
- Silicon Bronze
- Good Formability
- Increased Strength Proportional to Cold Work
- Resistance to Corrosion and Fatigue
- Extensively Cold Formed
- Anti-microbial Properties
Alloy NickelM400- Not Heat Treatable
- Rapid Work Hardening
- Good Tensile Strength
- Fasteners used in Aerospace, Oil & Gas, Marine,
and Chemical Applications
K500

Carbon Steel Fasteners

Grade SAEGrade ISOSteelFinished Minimum
Strength
Cold Forming
Strength
14.8Low Carbon
1006 - 1022
60 ksi
420 N/mm^2
50 -65 ksi
345 – 450 N/mm2
25.8Low Carbon
Medium Carbon
Cold Worked
75 ksi
520 N/mm^2
50 – 85 ksi
345 – 600 N/mm2
58.8
9.8
10.9
Medium Carbon
1030 - 1038
120 ksi
830 N/mm^2
65 -85 ksi
450 – 600 N/mm2
812.9Alloy
5115,4037,4140,
8620,8740
150 – 260 ksi
1040 – 1800 N/mm^2
85 – 100 ksi
600 -700 N/mm2

Cold Forming Material Processing

 Raw FormProcessingWire CoatingSpecificationForming Lubrication
Carbon SteelRimmed
Capped
Semi-Killed
Killed
Continuous
Cast
- Bar Rod Wire
- Cleaning/Coating
- Annealing
- Drawing
- Soaps
- Lime/Borax
- Zinc Phosphate
- Bonderize
- Chemical analysis
- Tensile Strength
- Coating
- Grain
- Wire Name
- Solid Film
- Petroleum Based Oil
- Synthetics
Stainless SteelIngot- Bar Rod Wire
- Cleaning / Coating
- Annealing
- Drawing
- Copper Plating
- Molybdenum Disulfide
- Oxalate
- Draw Soaps
- Chemical analysis
- Tensile Strength
- Coating
- High Grade Steel Extrusion Lube
Copper BrassBars
Continuous Cast
Annealing
Drawing
- Soaps, Fats
- Mineral Oils
- Chemical Analysis
- Tensile Strength
- Grain Size
- Hardness 1/8, 1/4
- Water Soluble Soaps, Pastes
- Petroleum Based Oil
AluminumIngotAnnealing
Drawing
- Mineral Oils- Chemical Analysis
- Temper O,H,T
- Petroleum Based Oil

Typical Tensile Strengths Steels

AISI TYPETensile (psi) Tensile (N/mm2)
1010 53,000 CD 365.7
102061,000 CD 420.9
405 70,000 ACD 483.0
302 HQ75,000 ACD 517.5
Carpenter #10 75,000 ACD517.5
430 75,000 ACD 517.5
512073,000538.2
103076,000 CD524.4
862078,000 A503.7
41078,000 ACD 538.2
312078,000538.2
103883,000 CD 572.7
30285,000 ACD586.5
305 85,000 ACD 586.5
104085,000 CD 586.5
403785,000 ACD586.5
154194,000 ACD 648.6
A286 95,000 ACD655.5
4130 98,000 ACD 676.2
4140 102,000 ACD 703.8
431110,000 ACD 759.0

A = Annealed, CD = Cold Drawn, ACD = Annealed, Cold Drawn